Singh et al. identify a prostaglandin-driven neural circuit driving aversion in response to inflammatory pain. The cover image is a confocal micrograph showing cell-type–specific expression of Cre (green) and tryptophan hydroxylase, which is selectively expressed in serotonergic cells (purple), in the dorsal raphe nucleus of Sert-Cre mice.
Members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors play important roles in reproduction, development, and physiology. In humans, genetic mutations in NRs are causes of rare diseases, while hormones and drugs that target NRs are in widespread therapeutic use. The present issue of the
Mitchell A. Lazar
Steroid hormones mediate critical lineage-specific developmental and physiologic responses. They function by binding their cognate receptors, which are transcription factors that drive specific gene expression programs. The requirement of most prostate cancers for androgen and most breast cancers for estrogen has led to the development of endocrine therapies that block the action of these hormones in these tumors. While initial endocrine interventions are successful, resistance to therapy often arises. We will review how steroid receptor–dependent genomic signaling is affected by genetic alterations in endocrine therapy resistance. The detailed understanding of these interactions will not only provide improved treatment options to overcome resistance, but, in the future, will also be the basis for implementing precision cancer medicine approaches.
Anna C. Groner, Myles Brown
Glucocorticoids (GCs; referred to clinically as corticosteroids) are steroid hormones with potent anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory profiles. Depending on the context, these hormones can also mediate pro-inflammatory activities, thereby serving as primers of the immune system. Their target receptor, the GC receptor (GR), is a multi-tasking transcription factor, changing its role and function depending on cellular and organismal needs. To get a clearer idea of how to improve the safety profile of GCs, recent studies have investigated the complex mechanisms underlying GR functions. One of the key findings includes both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles of GR, and a future challenge will be to understand how such paradoxical findings can be reconciled and how GR ultimately shifts the balance to a net anti-inflammatory profile. As such, there is consensus that GR deserves a second life as a drug target, with either refined classic GCs or a novel generation of nonsteroidal GR-targeting molecules, to meet the increasing clinical needs of today to treat inflammation and cancer.
Sofie J. Desmet, Karolien De Bosscher
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is the single known regulatory mediator of hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] in higher vertebrates. It acts in the nucleus of vitamin D target cells to regulate the expression of genes whose products control diverse, cell type–specific biological functions that include mineral homeostasis. In this Review we describe progress that has been made in defining new cellular sites of action of this receptor, the mechanisms through which this mediator controls the expression of genes, the biology that ensues, and the translational impact of this receptor on human health and disease. We conclude with a brief discussion of what comes next in understanding vitamin D biology and the mechanisms that underlie its actions.
J. Wesley Pike, Mark B. Meyer, Seong-Min Lee, Melda Onal, Nancy A. Benkusky
The adult heart is uniquely designed and equipped to provide a continuous supply of energy in the form of ATP to support persistent contractile function. This high-capacity energy transduction system is the result of a remarkable surge in mitochondrial biogenesis and maturation during the fetal-to-adult transition in cardiac development. Substantial evidence indicates that nuclear receptor signaling is integral to dynamic changes in the cardiac mitochondrial phenotype in response to developmental cues, in response to diverse postnatal physiologic conditions, and in disease states such as heart failure. A subset of cardiac-enriched nuclear receptors serve to match mitochondrial fuel preferences and capacity for ATP production with changing energy demands of the heart. In this Review, we describe the role of specific nuclear receptors and their coregulators in the dynamic control of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in the normal and diseased heart.
Rick B. Vega, Daniel P. Kelly
Parasitic worms infect billions of people worldwide. Current treatments rely on a small group of drugs that have been used for decades. A shortcoming of these drugs is their inability to target the intractable infectious stage of the parasite. As well-known therapeutic targets in mammals, nuclear receptors have begun to be studied in parasitic worms, where they are widely distributed and play key roles in governing metabolic and developmental transcriptional networks. One such nuclear receptor is DAF-12, which is required for normal nematode development, including the all-important infectious stage. Here we review the emerging literature that implicates DAF-12 and potentially other nuclear receptors as novel anthelmintic targets.
Zhu Wang, Nathaniel E. Schaffer, Steven A. Kliewer, David J. Mangelsdorf
Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Understanding the role and the underlying mechanisms of NRs in the context of energy balance control may facilitate the identification of novel targets to treat obesity. Notably, NRs are abundantly expressed in the brain, and emerging evidence indicates that a number of these brain NRs regulate multiple aspects of energy balance, including feeding, energy expenditure and physical activity. In this Review we summarize some of the recent literature regarding effects of brain NRs on body weight regulation and discuss mechanisms underlying these effects.
Yong Xu, Bert W. O’Malley, Joel K. Elmquist
Following the first isolation of nuclear receptor (NR) genes, genetic disorders caused by NR gene mutations were initially discovered by a candidate gene approach based on their known roles in endocrine pathways and physiologic processes. Subsequently, the identification of disorders has been informed by phenotypes associated with gene disruption in animal models or by genetic linkage studies. More recently, whole exome sequencing has associated pathogenic genetic variants with unexpected, often multisystem, human phenotypes. To date, defects in 20 of 48 human NR genes have been associated with human disorders, with different mutations mediating phenotypes of varying severity or several distinct conditions being associated with different changes in the same gene. Studies of individuals with deleterious genetic variants can elucidate novel roles of human NRs, validating them as targets for drug development or providing new insights into structure-function relationships. Importantly, human genetic discoveries enable definitive disease diagnosis and can provide opportunities to therapeutically manage affected individuals. Here we review germline changes in human NR genes associated with “monogenic” conditions, including a discussion of the structural basis of mutations that cause distinctive changes in NR function and the molecular mechanisms mediating pathogenesis.
John C. Achermann, John Schwabe, Louise Fairall, Krishna Chatterjee
The nuclear receptors PPARα (encoded by
Geoffrey A. Preidis, Kang Ho Kim, David D. Moore
Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs) regulate energy metabolism and hence are therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While they share anti-inflammatory activities, the PPAR isotypes distinguish themselves by differential actions on lipid and glucose homeostasis. In this Review we discuss the complementary and distinct metabolic effects of the PPAR isotypes together with the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, as well as the synthetic PPAR ligands that are used in the clinic or under development. We highlight the potential of new PPAR ligands with improved efficacy and safety profiles in the treatment of complex metabolic disorders.
Vanessa Dubois, Jérôme Eeckhoute, Philippe Lefebvre, Bart Staels
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only treatment option for several severe hematological malignancies. The development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of the procedure and results when donor T cells become activated against recipient-specific antigens. The factors that drive the alloreactive T cell response are not completely understood. In this issue of the
Immunotherapy has emerged as a potent approach for treating aggressive cancers, such as non–small-cell lung tumors and metastatic melanoma. Clinical trials are now in progress for patients with malignant gliomas; however, a better understanding of how these tumors escape immune surveillance is required to enhance antitumor immune responses. With gliomas, the recruitment of CD8+ T cells to the tumor is impaired, in part preventing containment or elimination of the tumor. In this issue of the JCI, Kohanbash and colleagues present an elegant dissection of how gliomas exploit an enzymatic activity acquired through a common mutation to abrogate the migration of CD8+ T cells to the tumor. They show that the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), generated by mutated forms of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1 and IDH2), reduces the expression of STAT1, thereby limiting the production of the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10. As a result, IDH1-mutated tumors are less effectively infiltrated by CD8+ T cells, contributing to tumor escape. Finally, in mice harboring syngeneic gliomas, an inhibitor of 2HG synthesis complemented vaccination to ameliorate tumor control. Understanding how to increase immune infiltration of gliomas represents a key first step in achieving tumor destruction through immunotherapy.
Liliana E. Lucca, David A. Hafler
Opioids are the gold-standard treatment for severe pain. However, potentially life-threatening side effects decrease the safety and effectiveness of these compounds. The addiction liability of these drugs has led to the current epidemic of opioid abuse in the US. Extensive research efforts have focused on trying to dissociate the analgesic properties of opioids from their undesirable side effects. Splice variants of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), which mediates opioid actions, have unique pharmacological properties and anatomic distributions that make them attractive candidates for therapeutic pain relief. In this issue of the
Stephanie Puig, Howard B. Gutstein
The major function of the lymphatic system is to drain interstitial fluid from tissue. Functional drainage causes increased fluid flow that triggers lymphatic expansion, which is conceptually similar to hypoxia-triggered angiogenesis. Here, we have identified a mechanotransduction pathway that translates laminar flow–induced shear stress to activation of lymphatic sprouting. While low-rate laminar flow commonly induces the classic shear stress responses in blood endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), only LECs display reduced Notch activity and increased sprouting capacity. In response to flow, the plasma membrane calcium channel ORAI1 mediates calcium influx in LECs and activates calmodulin to facilitate a physical interaction between Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), the major regulator of shear responses, and PROX1, the master regulator of lymphatic development. The PROX1/KLF2 complex upregulates the expression of
Dongwon Choi, Eunkyung Park, Eunson Jung, Young Jin Seong, Jaehyuk Yoo, Esak Lee, Mingu Hong, Sunju Lee, Hiroaki Ishida, James Burford, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Ralf H. Adams, Sonal Srikanth, Yousang Gwack, Christopher S. Chen, Hans J. Vogel, Chester J. Koh, Alex K. Wong, Young-Kwon Hong
A hallmark of aged mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) in bone marrow is the pivot of differentiation potency from osteoblast to adipocyte coupled with a decrease in self-renewal capacity. However, how these cellular events are orchestrated in the aging progress is not fully understood. In this study, we have used molecular and genetic approaches to investigate the role of forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) in transcriptional control of MSC senescence. In bone marrow MSCs, FOXP1 expression levels declined with age in an inverse manner with those of the senescence marker
Hanjun Li, Pei Liu, Shuqin Xu, Yinghua Li, Joseph D. Dekker, Baojie Li, Ying Fan, Zhenlin Zhang, Yang Hong, Gong Yang, Tingting Tang, Yongxin Ren, Haley O. Tucker, Zhengju Yao, Xizhi Guo
Cholestatic liver fibrosis is caused by obstruction of the biliary tract and is associated with early activation of portal fibroblasts (PFs) that express Thy-1, fibulin 2, and the recently identified marker mesothelin (MSLN). Here, we have demonstrated that activated PFs (aPFs) and myofibroblasts play a critical role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Conditional ablation of MSLN+ aPFs in BDL-injured mice attenuated liver fibrosis by approximately 50%. Similar results were observed in MSLN-deficient mice (
Yukinori Koyama, Ping Wang, Shuang Liang, Keiko Iwaisako, Xiao Liu, Jun Xu, Mingjun Zhang, Mengxi Sun, Min Cong, Daniel Karin, Kojiro Taura, Chris Benner, Sven Heinz, Tapan Bera, David A. Brenner, Tatiana Kisseleva
Genetic variations in the
Mohd Hafeez Faridi, Samia Q. Khan, Wenpu Zhao, Ha Won Lee, Mehmet M. Altintas, Kun Zhang, Vinay Kumar, Andrew R. Armstrong, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Jessica M. Dorschner, Abigail M. Schnaith, Xiaobo Li, Yogita Ghodke-Puranik, Erica Moore, Monica Purmalek, Jorge Irizarry-Caro, Tingting Zhang, Rachael Day, Darren Stoub, Victoria Hoffmann, Shehryar Jehangir Khaliqdina, Prachal Bhargava, Ana M. Santander, Marta Torroella-Kouri, Biju Issac, David J. Cimbaluk, Andrew Zloza, Rajeev Prabhakar, Shashank Deep, Meenakshi Jolly, Kwi Hye Koh, Jonathan S. Reichner, Elizabeth M. Bradshaw, JianFeng Chen, Luis F. Moita, Peter S. Yuen, Wanxia Li Tsai, Bhupinder Singh, Jochen Reiser, Swapan K. Nath, Timothy B. Niewold, Roberto I. Vazquez-Padron, Mariana J. Kaplan, Vineet Gupta
Loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway are hallmarks of prostate cancer (PCa). However, these alterations alone are insufficient for cells to acquire metastatic traits. Here, we have shown that the histone dimethyl transferase WHSC1 critically drives indolent PTEN-null tumors to become metastatic PCa. In a PTEN-null murine PCa model, WHSC1 overexpression in prostate epithelium cooperated with
Ni Li, Wei Xue, Huairui Yuan, Baijun Dong, Yufeng Ding, Yongfeng Liu, Min Jiang, Shan Kan, Tongyu Sun, Jiale Ren, Qiang Pan, Xiang Li, Peiyuan Zhang, Guohong Hu, Yan Wang, Xiaoming Wang, Qintong Li, Jun Qin
Bone undergoes continuous remodeling due to balanced bone formation and resorption mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Osteoclasts arise from the macrophage lineage, and their differentiation is dependent on RANKL, a member of the TNF family of cytokines. Here, we have provided evidence that RANKL controls the expression of 3BP2, an adapter protein that is required for activation of SRC tyrosine kinase and simultaneously coordinates the attenuation of β-catenin, both of which are required to execute the osteoclast developmental program. We found that RANKL represses the transcription of the E3 ubiquitin ligase
Yoshinori Matsumoto, Jose Larose, Oliver A. Kent, Melissa Lim, Adele Changoor, Lucia Zhang, Yaryna Storozhuk, Xiaohong Mao, Marc D. Grynpas, Feng Cong, Robert Rottapel
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a clonal hematologic malignancy characterized by BM fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, circulating CD34+ cells, splenomegaly, and a propensity to evolve to acute myeloid leukemia. Moreover, the spleen and BM of patients harbor atypical, clustered megakaryocytes, which contribute to the disease by secreting profibrotic cytokines. Here, we have revealed that megakaryocytes in PMF show impaired maturation that is associated with reduced GATA1 protein. In investigating the cause of GATA1 downregulation, our gene-expression study revealed the presence of the
Laure Gilles, Ahmet Dirim Arslan, Christian Marinaccio, Qiang Jeremy Wen, Priyanka Arya, Maureen McNulty, Qiong Yang, Jonathan C. Zhao, Katerina Konstantinoff, Terra Lasho, Animesh Pardanani, Brady Stein, Isabelle Plo, Sriram Sundaravel, Amittha Wickrema, Annarita Migliaccio, Sandeep Gurbuxani, William Vainchenker, Leonidas C. Platanias, Ayalew Tefferi, John D. Crispino
Moesin is a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family of proteins that are important for organizing membrane domains and receptor signaling and regulating the migration of effector T cells. Whether moesin plays any role during the generation of TGF-β–induced Tregs (iTregs) is unknown. Here, we have discovered that moesin is translationally regulated by TGF-β and is also required for optimal TGF-β signaling that promotes efficient development of iTregs. Loss of moesin impaired the development and function of both peripherally derived iTregs and in vitro–induced Tregs. Mechanistically, we identified an interaction between moesin and TGF-β receptor II (TβRII) that allows moesin to control the surface abundance and stability of TβRI and TβRII. We also found that moesin is required for iTreg conversion in the tumor microenvironment, and the deletion of moesin from recipient mice supported the rapid expansion of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells against melanoma. Our study establishes moesin as an important regulator of the surface abundance and stability of TβRII and identifies moesin’s role in facilitating the efficient generation of iTregs. It also provides an advancement to our understanding about the role of the ERM proteins in regulating signal transduction pathways and suggests that modulation of moesin is a potential therapeutic target for Treg-related immune disorders.
Ephraim A. Ansa-Addo, Yongliang Zhang, Yi Yang, George S. Hussey, Breege V. Howley, Mohammad Salem, Brian Riesenberg, Shaoli Sun, Don C. Rockey, Serhan Karvar, Philip H. Howe, Bei Liu, Zihai Li
Global health is threatened by emerging viral infections, which largely lack effective vaccines or therapies. Targeting host pathways that are exploited by multiple viruses could offer broad-spectrum solutions. We previously reported that AAK1 and GAK, kinase regulators of the host adaptor proteins AP1 and AP2, are essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underlying mechanism and relevance to other viruses or in vivo infections remained unknown. Here, we have discovered that AP1 and AP2 cotraffic with HCV particles in live cells. Moreover, we found that multiple viruses, including dengue and Ebola, exploit AAK1 and GAK during entry and infectious virus production. In cultured cells, treatment with sunitinib and erlotinib, approved anticancer drugs that inhibit AAK1 or GAK activity, or with more selective compounds inhibited intracellular trafficking of HCV and multiple unrelated RNA viruses with a high barrier to resistance. In murine models of dengue and Ebola infection, sunitinib/erlotinib combination protected against morbidity and mortality. We validated sunitinib- and erlotinib-mediated inhibition of AAK1 and GAK activity as an important mechanism of antiviral action. Additionally, we revealed potential roles for additional kinase targets. These findings advance our understanding of virus-host interactions and establish a proof of principle for a repurposed, host-targeted approach to combat emerging viruses.
Elena Bekerman, Gregory Neveu, Ana Shulla, Jennifer Brannan, Szu-Yuan Pu, Stanley Wang, Fei Xiao, Rina Barouch-Bentov, Russell R. Bakken, Roberto Mateo, Jennifer Govero, Claude M. Nagamine, Michael S. Diamond, Steven De Jonghe, Piet Herdewijn, John M. Dye, Glenn Randall, Shirit Einav
Obesity is characterized by aberrant fat accumulation. However, the intracellular signaling pathway that senses dietary fat and leads to fat storage remains elusive. Here, we have observed that the levels of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and the related family member HDAC10 are markedly reduced in adipose tissues of obese animals and humans. Mice with adipocyte-specific depletion of
Hui Qian, Yuanying Chen, Zongqian Nian, Lu Su, Haoyong Yu, Feng-Jung Chen, Xiuqin Zhang, Wenyi Xu, Linkang Zhou, Jiaming Liu, Jinhai Yu, Luxin Yu, Yan Gao, Hongchao Zhang, Haihong Zhang, Shimin Zhao, Li Yu, Rui-Ping Xiao, Yuqian Bao, Shaocong Hou, Pingping Li, Jiada Li, Haiteng Deng, Weiping Jia, Peng Li
Pain is fundamentally unpleasant and induces a negative affective state. The affective component of pain is mediated by circuits that are distinct from those mediating the sensory-discriminative component. Here, we have investigated the role of prostaglandins in the affective dimension of pain using a rodent pain assay based on conditioned place aversion to formalin injection, an inflammatory noxious stimulus. We found that place aversion induced by inflammatory pain depends on prostaglandin E2 that is synthesized by cyclooxygenase 2 in neural cells. Further, mice lacking the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP3 selectively on serotonergic cells or selectively in the area of the dorsal raphe nucleus failed to form an aversion to formalin-induced pain, as did mice lacking the serotonin transporter. Chemogenetic manipulations revealed that EP3 receptor activation elicited conditioned place aversion to pain via inhibition of serotonergic neurons. In contrast to their role in inflammatory pain aversion, EP3 receptors on serotonergic cells were dispensable for acute nociceptive behaviors and for aversion induced by thermal pain or a κ opioid receptor agonist. Collectively, our findings show that prostaglandin-mediated modulation of serotonergic transmission controls the affective component of inflammatory pain.
Anand Kumar Singh, Joanna Zajdel, Elahe Mirrasekhian, Nader Almoosawi, Isabell Frisch, Anna M. Klawonn, Maarit Jaarola, Michael Fritz, David Engblom
In transplantation, there is a critical need for noninvasive biomarker platforms for monitoring immunologic rejection. We hypothesized that transplanted tissues release donor-specific exosomes into recipient circulation and that the quantitation and profiling of donor intra-exosomal cargoes may constitute a biomarker platform for monitoring rejection. Here, we have tested this hypothesis in a human-into-mouse xenogeneic islet transplant model and validated the concept in clinical settings of islet and renal transplantation. In the xenogeneic model, we quantified islet transplant exosomes in recipient blood over long-term follow-up using anti-HLA antibody, which was detectable only in xenoislet recipients of human islets. Transplant islet exosomes were purified using anti-HLA antibody–conjugated beads, and their cargoes contained the islet endocrine hormone markers insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Rejection led to a marked decrease in transplant islet exosome signal along with distinct changes in exosomal microRNA and proteomic profiles prior to appearance of hyperglycemia. In the clinical settings of islet and renal transplantation, donor exosomes with respective tissue specificity for islet β cells and renal epithelial cells were reliably characterized in recipient plasma over follow-up periods of up to 5 years. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the biomarker potential of transplant exosome characterization for providing a noninvasive window into the conditional state of transplant tissue.
Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Laxminarayana Korutla, Andreas Habertheuer, Ming Yu, Susan Rostami, Chao-Xing Yuan, Sanjana Reddy, Chengyang Liu, Varun Korutla, Brigitte Koeberlein, Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Michael R. Rickels, Ali Naji
B cells contribute to multiple aspects of autoimmune disorders and may play a role in triggering disease. Thus, targeting B cells may be a promising strategy for treating autoimmune disorders. Better understanding of the B cell subsets that are responsible for the development of autoimmunity will be critical for developing efficient therapies. Here we have reported that B cells expressing the transcription factor T-bet promote the rapid appearance of autoantibodies and germinal centers in spontaneous murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Conditional deletion of T-bet from B cells impaired the formation of germinal centers and mitigated the development of kidney damage and rapid mortality in SLE mice. B cell–specific deletion of T-bet was also associated with lower activation of both B cells and T cells. Taken together, our results suggest that targeting T-bet–expressing B cells may be a potential target for therapy for autoimmune diseases.
Kira Rubtsova, Anatoly V. Rubtsov, Joshua M. Thurman, Johanna M. Mennona, John W. Kappler, Philippa Marrack
The mTOR pathway is a critical determinant of cell persistence and growth wherein mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) mediates a balance between growth factor stimuli and nutrient availability. Amino acids or glucose facilitates mTORC1 activation by inducing RagA GTPase recruitment of mTORC1 to the lysosomal outer surface, enabling activation of mTOR by the Ras homolog Rheb. Thereby, RagA alters mTORC1-driven growth in times of nutrient abundance or scarcity. Here, we have evaluated differential nutrient-sensing dependence through RagA and mTORC1 in hematopoietic progenitors, which dynamically drive mature cell production, and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which provide a quiescent cellular reserve. In nutrient-abundant conditions, RagA-deficient HSC were functionally unimpaired and upregulated mTORC1 via nutrient-insensitive mechanisms. RagA was also dispensable for HSC function under nutritional stress conditions. Similarly, hyperactivation of RagA did not affect HSC function. In contrast, RagA deficiency markedly altered progenitor population function and mature cell output. Therefore, RagA is a molecular mechanism that distinguishes the functional attributes of reactive progenitors from a reserve stem cell pool. The indifference of HSC to nutrient sensing through RagA contributes to their molecular resilience to nutritional stress, a characteristic that is relevant to organismal viability in evolution and in modern HSC transplantation approaches.
Demetrios Kalaitzidis, Dongjun Lee, Alejo Efeyan, Youmna Kfoury, Naema Nayyar, David B. Sykes, Francois E. Mercier, Ani Papazian, Ninib Baryawno, Gabriel D. Victora, Donna Neuberg, David M. Sabatini, David T. Scadden
Leptin contributes to the control of resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood pressure (BP) through its actions in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin AT1 receptors within the brain are also involved in the control of RMR and BP, but whether this regulation overlaps with leptin’s actions is unclear. Here, we have demonstrated the selective requirement of the AT1A receptor in leptin-mediated control of RMR. We observed that AT1A receptors colocalized with leptin receptors (LEPRs) in the ARC. Cellular coexpression of AT1A and LEPR was almost exclusive to the ARC and occurred primarily within neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP). Mice lacking the AT1A receptor specifically in LEPR-expressing cells failed to show an increase in RMR in response to a high-fat diet and deoxycorticosterone acetate–salt (DOCA-salt) treatments, but BP control remained intact. Accordingly, loss of RMR control was recapitulated in mice lacking AT1A in AgRP-expressing cells. We conclude that angiotensin activates divergent mechanisms to control BP and RMR and that the brain RAS functions as a major integrator for RMR control through its actions at leptin-sensitive AgRP cells of the ARC.
Kristin E. Claflin, Jeremy A. Sandgren, Allyn M. Lambertz, Benjamin J. Weidemann, Nicole K. Littlejohn, Colin M.L. Burnett, Nicole A. Pearson, Donald A. Morgan, Katherine N. Gibson-Corley, Kamal Rahmouni, Justin L. Grobe
Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes
Gary Kohanbash, Diego A. Carrera, Shruti Shrivastav, Brian J. Ahn, Naznin Jahan, Tali Mazor, Zinal S. Chheda, Kira M. Downey, Payal B. Watchmaker, Casey Beppler, Rolf Warta, Nduka A. Amankulor, Christel Herold-Mende, Joseph F. Costello, Hideho Okada
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a polyglutamine (polyQ) disease caused by aberrant expansion of the polyQ tract in Huntingtin (HTT). While motor impairment mediated by polyQ-expanded HTT has been intensively studied, molecular mechanisms for nonmotor symptoms in HD, such as psychiatric manifestations, remain elusive. Here we have demonstrated that HTT forms a ternary protein complex with the scaffolding protein DISC1 and cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) to regulate PDE4 activity. We observed pathological cross-seeding between DISC1 and mutant HTT aggregates in the brains of HD patients as well as in a murine model that recapitulates the polyQ pathology of HD (R6/2 mice). In R6/2 mice, consequent reductions in soluble DISC1 led to dysregulation of DISC1-PDE4 complexes, aberrantly increasing the activity of PDE4. Importantly, exogenous expression of a modified DISC1, which binds to PDE4 but not mutant HTT, normalized PDE4 activity and ameliorated anhedonia in the R6/2 mice. We propose that cross-seeding of mutant HTT and DISC1 and the resultant changes in PDE4 activity may underlie the pathology of a specific subset of mental manifestations of HD, which may provide an insight into molecular signaling in mental illness in general.
Motomasa Tanaka, Koko Ishizuka, Yoko Nekooki-Machida, Ryo Endo, Noriko Takashima, Hideyuki Sasaki, Yusuke Komi, Amy Gathercole, Elaine Huston, Kazuhiro Ishii, Kelvin Kai-Wan Hui, Masaru Kurosawa, Sun-Hong Kim, Nobuyuki Nukina, Eiki Takimoto, Miles D. Houslay, Akira Sawa
Obesity causes insulin resistance, and PPARγ ligands such as rosiglitazone are insulin sensitizing, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. In C57BL/6 (B6) mice, obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) has major effects on visceral epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT). Here, we report that HFD-induced obesity in B6 mice also altered the activity of gene regulatory elements and genome-wide occupancy of PPARγ. Rosiglitazone treatment restored insulin sensitivity in obese B6 mice, yet, surprisingly, had little effect on gene expression in eWAT. However, in subcutaneous inguinal fat (iWAT), rosiglitazone markedly induced molecular signatures of brown fat, including the key thermogenic gene
Raymond E. Soccio, Zhenghui Li, Eric R. Chen, Yee Hoon Foong, Kiara K. Benson, Joanna R. Dispirito, Shannon E. Mullican, Matthew J. Emmett, Erika R. Briggs, Lindsey C. Peed, Richard K. Dzeng, Carlos J. Medina, Jennifer F. Jolivert, Megan Kissig, Satyajit R. Rajapurkar, Manashree Damle, Hee-Woong Lim, Kyoung-Jae Won, Patrick Seale, David J. Steger, Mitchell A. Lazar
The antiviral restriction factor IFN-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits cell entry of a number of viruses, and genetic diversity within
Maria A. Stacey, Simon Clare, Mathew Clement, Morgan Marsden, Juneid Abdul-Karim, Leanne Kane, Katherine Harcourt, Cordelia Brandt, Ceri A. Fielding, Sarah E. Smith, Rachael S. Wash, Silvia Gimeno Brias, Gabrielle Stack, George Notley, Emma L. Cambridge, Christopher Isherwood, Anneliese O. Speak, Zoë Johnson, Walter Ferlin, Simon A. Jones, Paul Kellam, Ian R. Humphreys
Shohat-type spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) is a skeletal dysplasia that affects cartilage development. Similar skeletal disorders, such as spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias, are linked to mutations in type II collagen (COL2A1), but the causative gene in SEMD is not known. Here, we have performed whole-exome sequencing to identify a recurrent homozygous c.408+1G>A donor splice site loss-of-function mutation in DDRGK domain containing 1 (
Adetutu T. Egunsola, Yangjin Bae, Ming-Ming Jiang, David S. Liu, Yuqing Chen-Evenson, Terry Bertin, Shan Chen, James T. Lu, Lisette Nevarez, Nurit Magal, Annick Raas-Rothschild, Eric C. Swindell, Daniel H. Cohn, Richard A. Gibbs, Philippe M. Campeau, Mordechai Shohat, Brendan H. Lee
Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) is an autosomal-dominant disorder of skin pigmentation associated with mutations in keratin 5 (
Damian J. Ralser, F. Buket Ü. Basmanav, Aylar Tafazzoli, Jade Wititsuwannakul, Sarah Delker, Sumita Danda, Holger Thiele, Sabrina Wolf, Michélle Busch, Susanne A. Pulimood, Janine Altmüller, Peter Nürnberg, Didier Lacombe, Uwe Hillen, Jörg Wenzel, Jorge Frank, Benjamin Odermatt, Regina C. Betz
Vaccines targeting glycan structures at the surface of pathogenic microbes must overcome the inherent T cell–independent nature of immune responses against glycans. Carbohydrate conjugate vaccines achieve this by coupling bacterial polysaccharides to a carrier protein that recruits heterologous CD4 T cells to help B cell maturation. Yet they most often produce low- to medium-affinity immune responses of limited duration in immunologically fit individuals and disappointing results in the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Here, we hypothesized that these limitations result from suboptimal T cell help. To produce the next generation of more efficacious conjugate vaccines, we have explored a synthetic design aimed at focusing both B cell and T cell recognition to a single short glycan displayed at the surface of a virus-like particle. We tested and established the proof of concept of this approach for 2 serotypes of
Zinaida Polonskaya, Shenglou Deng, Anita Sarkar, Lisa Kain, Marta Comellas-Aragones, Craig S. McKay, Katarzyna Kaczanowska, Marie Holt, Ryan McBride, Valle Palomo, Kevin M. Self, Seth Taylor, Adriana Irimia, Sanjay R. Mehta, Jennifer M. Dan, Matthew Brigger, Shane Crotty, Stephen P. Schoenberger, James C. Paulson, Ian A. Wilson, Paul B. Savage, M.G. Finn, Luc Teyton
SIRT2 is a cytoplasmic sirtuin that plays a role in various cellular processes, including tumorigenesis, metabolism, and inflammation. Since these processes require iron, we hypothesized that SIRT2 directly regulates cellular iron homeostasis. Here, we have demonstrated that SIRT2 depletion results in a decrease in cellular iron levels both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we determined that SIRT2 maintains cellular iron levels by binding to and deacetylating nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2–related factor 2 (NRF2) on lysines 506 and 508, leading to a reduction in total and nuclear NRF2 levels. The reduction in nuclear NRF2 leads to reduced ferroportin 1 (FPN1) expression, which in turn results in decreased cellular iron export. Finally, we observed that
Xiaoyan Yang, Seong-Hoon Park, Hsiang-Chun Chang, Jason S. Shapiro, Athanassios Vassilopoulos, Konrad T. Sawicki, Chunlei Chen, Meng Shang, Paul W. Burridge, Conrad L. Epting, Lisa D. Wilsbacher, Supak Jenkitkasemwong, Mitchell Knutson, David Gius, Hossein Ardehali
Tissue fibrosis is the primary cause of long-term graft failure after organ transplantation. In lung allografts, progressive terminal airway fibrosis leads to an irreversible decline in lung function termed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Here, we have identified an autocrine pathway linking nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 (NFAT1), autotaxin (ATX), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and β-catenin that contributes to progression of fibrosis in lung allografts. Mesenchymal cells (MCs) derived from fibrotic lung allografts (BOS MCs) demonstrated constitutive nuclear β-catenin expression that was dependent on autocrine ATX secretion and LPA signaling. We found that NFAT1 upstream of ATX regulated expression of ATX as well as β-catenin. Silencing NFAT1 in BOS MCs suppressed ATX expression, and sustained overexpression of NFAT1 increased ATX expression and activity in non-fibrotic MCs. LPA signaling induced NFAT1 nuclear translocation, suggesting that autocrine LPA synthesis promotes NFAT1 transcriptional activation and ATX secretion in a positive feedback loop. In an in vivo mouse orthotopic lung transplant model of BOS, antagonism of the LPA receptor (LPA1) or ATX inhibition decreased allograft fibrosis and was associated with lower active β-catenin and dephosphorylated NFAT1 expression. Lung allografts from β-catenin reporter mice demonstrated reduced β-catenin transcriptional activation in the presence of LPA1 antagonist, confirming an in vivo role for LPA signaling in β-catenin activation.
Pengxiu Cao, Yoshiro Aoki, Linda Badri, Natalie M. Walker, Casey M. Manning, Amir Lagstein, Eric R. Fearon, Vibha N. Lama
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder that is characterized by extreme variability in symptoms, with females being less severely affected than males and presenting a higher proportion of asymptomatic carriers. The sex-related factors involved in the disease are not known. Here, we have utilized myoblasts isolated from FSHD patients (FSHD myoblasts) to investigate the effect of estrogens on muscle properties. Our results demonstrated that estrogens counteract the differentiation impairment of FSHD myoblasts without affecting cell proliferation or survival. Estrogen effects are mediated by estrogen receptor β (ERβ), which reduces chromatin occupancy and transcriptional activity of double homeobox 4 (DUX4), a protein whose aberrant expression has been implicated in FSHD pathogenesis. During myoblast differentiation, we observed that the levels and activity of DUX4 increased progressively and were associated with its enhanced recruitment in the nucleus. ERβ interfered with this recruitment by relocalizing DUX4 in the cytoplasm. This work identifies estrogens as a potential disease modifier that underlie sex-related differences in FSHD by protecting against myoblast differentiation impairments in this disease.
Emanuela Teveroni, Marsha Pellegrino, Sabrina Sacconi, Patrizia Calandra, Isabella Cascino, Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli, Angela Puma, Matteo Garibaldi, Roberta Morosetti, Giorgio Tasca, Enzo Ricci, Carlo Pietro Trevisan, Giuliana Galluzzi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Marco Crescenzi, Giancarlo Deidda, Fabiola Moretti
BACKGROUND. The identification of patients with high-risk atherosclerotic plaques prior to the manifestation of clinical events remains challenging. Recent findings question histology- and imaging-based definitions of the “vulnerable plaque,” necessitating an improved approach for predicting onset of symptoms. METHODS. We performed a proteomics comparison of the vascular extracellular matrix and associated molecules in human carotid endarterectomy specimens from 6 symptomatic versus 6 asymptomatic patients to identify a protein signature for high-risk atherosclerotic plaques. Proteomics data were integrated with gene expression profiling of 121 carotid endarterectomies and an analysis of protein secretion by lipid-loaded human vascular smooth muscle cells. Finally, epidemiological validation of candidate biomarkers was performed in two community-based studies. RESULTS. Proteomics and at least one of the other two approaches identified a molecular signature of plaques from symptomatic patients that comprised matrix metalloproteinase 9, chitinase 3-like-1, S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8), S100A9, cathepsin B, fibronectin, and galectin-3-binding protein. Biomarker candidates measured in 685 subjects in the Bruneck study were associated with progression to advanced atherosclerosis and incidence of cardiovascular disease over a 10-year follow-up period. A 4-biomarker signature (matrix metalloproteinase 9, S100A8/S100A9, cathepsin D, and galectin-3-binding protein) improved risk prediction and was successfully replicated in an independent cohort, the SAPHIR study. CONCLUSION. The identified 4-biomarker signature may improve risk prediction and diagnostics for the management of cardiovascular disease. Further, our study highlights the strength of tissue-based proteomics for biomarker discovery. FUNDING. UK: British Heart Foundation (BHF); King’s BHF Center; and the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Center based at Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London in partnership with King’s College Hospital. Austria: Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT); Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy (BMWFW); Wirtschaftsagentur Wien; and Standortagentur Tirol.
Sarah R. Langley, Karin Willeit, Athanasios Didangelos, Ljubica Perisic Matic, Philipp Skroblin, Javier Barallobre-Barreiro, Mariette Lengquist, Gregor Rungger, Alexander Kapustin, Ludmilla Kedenko, Chris Molenaar, Ruifang Lu, Temo Barwari, Gonca Suna, Xiaoke Yin, Bernhard Iglseder, Bernhard Paulweber, Peter Willeit, Joseph Shalhoub, Gerard Pasterkamp, Alun H. Davies, Claudia Monaco, Ulf Hedin, Catherine M. Shanahan, Johann Willeit, Stefan Kiechl, Manuel Mayr
Extensive 3′ alternative splicing of the mu opioid receptor gene
Jin Xu, Zhigang Lu, Ankita Narayan, Valerie P. Le Rouzic, Mingming Xu, Amanda Hunkele, Taylor G. Brown, William F. Hoefer, Grace C. Rossi, Richard C. Rice, Arlene Martínez-Rivera, Anjali M. Rajadhyaksha, Luca Cartegni, Daniel L. Bassoni, Gavril W. Pasternak, Ying-Xian Pan
Alloimmune T cell responses induce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a serious complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Although Notch signaling mediated by Delta-like 1/4 (DLL1/4) Notch ligands has emerged as a major regulator of GVHD pathogenesis, little is known about the timing of essential Notch signals and the cellular source of Notch ligands after allo-BMT. Here, we have shown that critical DLL1/4-mediated Notch signals are delivered to donor T cells during a short 48-hour window after transplantation in a mouse allo-BMT model. Stromal, but not hematopoietic, cells were the essential source of Notch ligands during in vivo priming of alloreactive T cells. GVHD could be prevented by selective inactivation of
Jooho Chung, Christen L. Ebens, Eric Perkey, Vedran Radojcic, Ute Koch, Leonardo Scarpellino, Alexander Tong, Frederick Allen, Sherri Wood, Jiane Feng, Ann Friedman, David Granadier, Ivy T. Tran, Qian Chai, Lucas Onder, Minhong Yan, Pavan Reddy, Bruce R. Blazar, Alex Y. Huang, Todd V. Brennan, D. Keith Bishop, Burkhard Ludewig, Christian W. Siebel, Freddy Radtke, Sanjiv A. Luther, Ivan Maillard
Kathrin Maedler, Pavel Sergeev, Frédéric Ris, José Oberholzer, Helen I. Joller-Jemelka, Giatgen A. Spinas, Nurit Kaiser, Philippe A. Halban, Marc Y. Donath