Somatostatin (SRIF) analogs provide safe and effective therapy for acromegaly. In a proportion of patients, however, SRIF analogs may lead to discordant growth hormone (GH) and IGF-I suppression, which suggests a more complex mechanism than attributable to inhibition of GH release alone. To elucidate whether SRIF acts peripherally on the GH–IGF-I axis, we showed that rat hepatocytes express somatostatin receptor subtypes-2 and -3 and that IGF-I mRNA and protein levels were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by administration of octreotide. The inhibitory effect of SRIF was not apparent without added GH and in the presence of GH was specific for IGF-I induction and did not inhibit GH-induced c-myc or extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Pertussis toxin treatment of hepatocytes incubated with GH and SRIF, or with GH and octreotide, abrogated the inhibitory effect on GH-induced IGF-I, which confirms the requirement for the inhibitory G-protein. Treatment with SRIF and GH increased protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity and inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription-5b (STAT5b) phosphorylation and nuclear localization. Octreotide also inhibited GH-stimulated IGF-I protein content of ex vivo–perfused rat livers. The results demonstrate that SRIF acts both centrally and peripherally to control the GH–IGF-I axis, providing a mechanistic explanation for SRIF analog action in treating patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
Robert D. Murray, Kiwon Kim, Song-Guang Ren, Marjorie Chelly, Yutaka Umehara, Shlomo Melmed
Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) Ab’s of the stimulating variety are the cause of hyperthyroid Graves disease. MS-1 is a hamster mAb with TSHR-stimulating activity. To examine the in vivo biological activity of MS-1, mice were treated with purified MS-1 intraperitoneally and the thyroid response evaluated. MS-1 induced a dose-dependent increase in serum thyroxine (T4), with a maximum effect after 10 ∝g of MS-1 was administered. MS-1–secreting hybridoma cells were then transferred into the peritoneum of nude mice to study chronic thyroid stimulation. Serum MS-1 levels detected after 2 weeks were approximately 10–50 ∝g/ml, and the serum TSH was suppressed in all animals. Serum triiodothyronine levels were elevated, but only in animals with low serum MS-1 concentrations. In addition, there was a negative correlation between serum T4 and the serum MS-1 concentrations. These in vivo studies suggested a partial TSHR inactivation induced by excessive stimulation by MS-1. We confirmed this inactivation by demonstrating MS-1 modulation of TSHR function in vitro as evidenced by downregulation and desensitization of the TSHR at concentrations of MS-1 achieved in the in vivo studies. Thus, inactivation of the TSHR by stimulating TSHR autoantibodies (TSHR-Ab’s) in Graves disease patients may provide a functional explanation for the poor correlation between thyroid function and serum TSHR-Ab concentrations.
Takao Ando, Rauf Latif, Terry F. Davies
Inorganic phosphate is essential for ECM mineralization and also as a constituent of important molecules in cellular metabolism. Investigations of several hypophosphatemic diseases indicated that a hormone-like molecule probably regulates serum phosphate concentration. FGF23 has recently been recognized as playing important pathophysiological roles in several hypophosphatemic diseases. We present here the evidence that FGF23 is a physiological regulator of serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) by generating FGF23-null mice. Disruption of the Fgf23 gene did not result in embryonic lethality, although homozygous mice showed severe growth retardation with abnormal bone phenotype and markedly short life span. The Fgf23–/– mice displayed significantly high serum phosphate with increased renal phosphate reabsorption. They also showed an elevation in serum 1,25(OH)2D that was due to the enhanced expression of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (1α-OHase) from 10 days of age. These phenotypes could not be explained by currently known regulators of mineral homeostasis, indicating that FGF23 is essential for normal phosphate and vitamin D metabolism.
Takashi Shimada, Makoto Kakitani, Yuji Yamazaki, Hisashi Hasegawa, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Toshiro Fujita, Seiji Fukumoto, Kazuma Tomizuka, Takeyoshi Yamashita
The transfer of calcium from mother to milk during lactation is poorly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP) production and calcium transport in mammary epithelial cells are regulated by extracellular calcium acting through the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). The CaR becomes expressed on mammary epithelial cells at the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Increasing concentrations of calcium, neomycin, and a calcimimetic compound suppress PTHrP secretion by mammary epithelial cells in vitro, whereas in vivo, systemic hypocalcemia increases PTHrP production, an effect that can be prevented by treatment with a calcimimetic. Hypocalcemia also reduces overall milk production and calcium content, while increasing milk osmolality and protein concentrations. The changes in milk calcium content, milk osmolality, and milk protein concentration were mitigated by calcimimetic infusions. Finally, in a three-dimensional culture system that recapitulates the lactating alveolus, activation of the basolateral CaR increases transcellular calcium transport independent of its effect on PTHrP. We conclude that the lactating mammary gland can sense calcium and adjusts its secretion of calcium, PTHrP, and perhaps water in response to changes in extracellular calcium concentration. We believe this defines a homeostatic system that helps to match milk production to the availability of calcium.
Joshua VanHouten, Pamela Dann, Grace McGeoch, Edward M. Brown, Karen Krapcho, Margaret Neville, John J. Wysolmerski
Joshua N. VanHouten, Pamela Dann, Andrew F. Stewart, Christine J. Watson, Michael Pollak, Andrew C. Karaplis, John J. Wysolmerski
Insulin promotes both metabolism and growth. However, it is unclear whether insulin-dependent growth is merely a result of its metabolic actions. Targeted ablation of insulin receptor (Insr) has not clarified this issue, because of early postnatal lethality. To examine this question, we generated mice with variable cellular mosaicism for null Insr alleles. Insr ablation in approximately 80% of cells caused extreme growth retardation, lipoatrophy, and hypoglycemia, a clinical constellation that resembles the human syndrome of leprechaunism. Insr ablation in 98% of cells, while resulting in similar growth retardation and lipoatrophy, caused diabetes without β-cell hyperplasia. The growth retardation was associated with a greater than 60-fold increase in the expression of hepatic insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. These findings indicate that insulin regulates growth independently of metabolism and that the number of insulin receptors is an important determinant of the specificity of insulin action.
Tadahiro Kitamura, Yukari Kitamura, Jun Nakae, Antonio Giordano, Saverio Cinti, C. Ronald Kahn, Argiris Efstratiadis, Domenico Accili
The neurohypophyseal peptide [Arg8]-vasopressin (AVP) exerts major physiological actions through three distinct receptor isoforms designated V1a, V1b, and V2. Among these three subtypes, the vasopressin V1b receptor is specifically expressed in pituitary corticotrophs and mediates the stimulatory effect of vasopressin on ACTH release. To investigate the functional roles of V1b receptor subtypes in vivo, gene targeting was used to create a mouse model lacking the V1b receptor gene (V1bR–/–). Under resting conditions, circulating concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone were lower in V1bR–/– mice compared with WT mice (V1bR+/+). The normal increase in circulating ACTH levels in response to exogenous administration of AVP was impaired in V1bR–/– mice, while corticotropin-releasing hormone–stimulated ACTH release in the V1bR–/– mice was not significantly different from that in the V1bR+/+ mice. AVP-induced ACTH release from primary cultured pituitary cells in V1bR–/– mice was also blunted. Furthermore, the increase in ACTH after a forced swim stress was significantly suppressed in V1bR–/– mice. Our results clearly demonstrate that the V1b receptor plays a crucial role in regulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. It does this by maintaining ACTH and corticosterone levels, not only under stress but also under basal conditions.
Akito Tanoue, Shuji Ito, Kenji Honda, Sayuri Oshikawa, Yoko Kitagawa, Taka-aki Koshimizu, Toyoki Mori, Gozoh Tsujimoto
Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) precursor. The pathogenesis of FNDI is proposed to involve mutant protein–induced loss of AVP-producing neurons. We established murine knock-in models of two different naturally occurring human mutations that cause FNDI. A mutation in the AVP signal sequence [A(–1)T] is associated with a relatively mild phenotype or delayed presentation in humans. This mutation caused no apparent phenotype in mice. In contrast, heterozygous mice expressing a mutation that truncates the AVP precursor (C67X) exhibited polyuria and polydipsia by 2 months of age and these features of DI progressively worsened with age. Studies of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei revealed induction of the chaperone protein BiP and progressive loss of AVP-producing neurons relative to oxytocin-producing neurons. In addition, Avp gene products were not detected in the neuronal projections, suggesting retention of WT and mutant AVP precursors within the cell bodies. In summary, this murine model of FNDI recapitulates many features of the human disorder and demonstrates that expression of the mutant AVP precursor leads to progressive neuronal cell loss.
Theron A. Russell, Masafumi Ito, Mika Ito, Richard N. Yu, Fred A. Martinson, Jeffrey Weiss, J. Larry Jameson
Large amounts of calcium are transferred to offspring by milk. This demand results in negative calcium balance in lactating mothers and is associated with rapid bone loss. The mechanisms of bone loss during lactation are only partly understood. Several studies have suggested that parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP) might be secreted into the circulation by the lactating mammary gland and regulate bone turnover during lactation. Because mammary development fails in the absence of PTHrP, conventional PTHrP knockout mice cannot be used to address this possibility. To examine this hypothesis, we therefore used mice carrying a β-lactoglobulin promoter-driven Cre transgene, one null PTHrP allele, and one floxed PTHrP allele. Expression of Cre specifically in mammary epithelial cells during late pregnancy and lactation resulted in efficient deletion of the PTHrP gene; mammary gland PTHrP mRNA and milk PTHrP protein were almost completely absent. Removal of PTHrP from the lactating mammary glands resulted in reductions in levels of circulating PTHrP and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D and urinary cAMP. In addition, bone turnover was reduced and bone loss during lactation was attenuated. We conclude that during lactation mammary epithelial cells are a source of circulating PTHrP that promotes bone loss by increasing rates of bone resorption.
Joshua N. VanHouten, Pamela Dann, Andrew F. Stewart, Christine J. Watson, Michael Pollak, Andrew C. Karaplis, John J. Wysolmerski
Guanylin and uroguanylin, peptides synthesized in the intestine and kidney, have been postulated to have both paracrine and endocrine functions, forming a potential enteric-renal link to coordinate salt ingestion with natriuresis. To explore the in vivo role of uroguanylin in the regulation of sodium excretion, we created gene-targeted mice in which uroguanylin gene expression had been ablated. Northern and Western analysis confirmed the absence of uroguanylin message and protein in knockout mice, and cGMP levels were decreased in the mucosa of the small intestine. Ussing chamber analysis of jejunum revealed that Na+/H+ exchanger–mediated Na+ absorption and tissue conductance was not altered in the knockout animals, but short-circuit current, an index of electrogenic anion secretion, was reduced. Renal clearance measurements showed that uroguanylin deficiency results in impaired ability to excrete an enteral load of NaCl, primarily due to an inappropriate increase in renal Na+ reabsorption. Finally, telemetric recordings of blood pressure demonstrated increased mean arterial pressure in uroguanylin knockout animals that was independent of the level of dietary salt intake. Together, these findings establish a role for uroguanylin in an enteric-renal communication axis as well as a fundamental principle of this axis in the maintenance of salt homeostasis in vivo.
John N. Lorenz, Michelle Nieman, Jenine Sabo, L. Philip Sanford, Jennifer A. Hawkins, Noeet Elitsur, Lara R. Gawenis, Lane L. Clarke, Mitchell B. Cohen