This list is updated daily and reflects the last month of access data. Articles older than two years will not be shown.
Across clinical trials, T cell expansion and persistence following adoptive cell transfer (ACT) have correlated with superior patient outcomes. Herein, we undertook a pan-cancer analysis to identify actionable ligand-receptor pairs capable of compromising T cell durability following ACT. We discovered that FASLG, the gene encoding the apoptosis-inducing ligand FasL, is overexpressed within the majority of human tumor microenvironments (TMEs). Further, we uncovered that Fas, the receptor for FasL, is highly expressed on patient-derived T cells used for clinical ACT. We hypothesized that a cognate Fas-FasL interaction within the TME might limit both T cell persistence and antitumor efficacy. We discovered that genetic engineering of Fas variants impaired in the ability to bind FADD functioned as dominant negative receptors (DNRs), preventing FasL-induced apoptosis in Fas-competent T cells. T cells coengineered with a Fas DNR and either a T cell receptor or chimeric antigen receptor exhibited enhanced persistence following ACT, resulting in superior antitumor efficacy against established solid and hematologic cancers. Despite increased longevity, Fas DNR–engineered T cells did not undergo aberrant expansion or mediate autoimmunity. Thus, T cell–intrinsic disruption of Fas signaling through genetic engineering represents a potentially universal strategy to enhance ACT efficacy across a broad range of human malignancies.
Tori N. Yamamoto, Ping-Hsien Lee, Suman K. Vodnala, Devikala Gurusamy, Rigel J. Kishton, Zhiya Yu, Arash Eidizadeh, Robert Eil, Jessica Fioravanti, Luca Gattinoni, James N. Kochenderfer, Terry J. Fry, Bulent Arman Aksoy, Jeffrey E. Hammerbacher, Anthony C. Cruz, Richard M. Siegel, Nicholas P. Restifo, Christopher A. Klebanoff
Total views: 2872
Mucus-invasive bacterial biofilms are identified on the colon mucosa of approximately 50% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and approximately 13% of healthy subjects. Here, we test the hypothesis that human colon biofilms comprise microbial communities that are carcinogenic in CRC mouse models. Homogenates of human biofilm-positive colon mucosa were prepared from tumor patients (tumor and paired normal tissues from surgical resections) or biofilm-positive biopsies from healthy individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy; homogenates of biofilm-negative colon biopsies from healthy individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy served as controls. After 12 weeks, biofilm-positive, but not biofilm-negative, human colon mucosal homogenates induced colon tumor formation in 3 mouse colon tumor models (germ-free ApcMinΔ850/+;Il10–/– or ApcMinΔ850/+ and specific pathogen–free ApcMinΔ716/+ mice). Remarkably, biofilm-positive communities from healthy colonoscopy biopsies induced colon inflammation and tumors similarly to biofilm-positive tumor tissues. By 1 week, biofilm-positive human tumor homogenates, but not healthy biopsies, displayed consistent bacterial mucus invasion and biofilm formation in mouse colons. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and RNA-Seq analyses identified compositional and functional microbiota differences between mice colonized with biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative communities. These results suggest human colon mucosal biofilms, whether from tumor hosts or healthy individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy, are carcinogenic in murine models of CRC.
Sarah Tomkovich, Christine M. Dejea, Kathryn Winglee, Julia L. Drewes, Liam Chung, Franck Housseau, Jillian L. Pope, Josee Gauthier, Xiaolun Sun, Marcus Mühlbauer, Xiuli Liu, Payam Fathi, Robert A. Anders, Sepideh Besharati, Ernesto Perez-Chanona, Ye Yang, Hua Ding, Xinqun Wu, Shaoguang Wu, James R. White, Raad Z. Gharaibeh, Anthony A. Fodor, Hao Wang, Drew M. Pardoll, Christian Jobin, Cynthia L. Sears
Total views: 2352
Chronic stress triggers activation of the sympathetic nervous system and drives malignancy. Using an immunodeficient murine system, we showed that chronic stress–induced epinephrine promoted breast cancer stem-like properties via lactate dehydrogenase A–dependent (LDHA-dependent) metabolic rewiring. Chronic stress–induced epinephrine activated LDHA to generate lactate, and the adjusted pH directed USP28-mediated deubiquitination and stabilization of MYC. The SLUG promoter was then activated by MYC, which promoted development of breast cancer stem-like traits. Using a drug screen that targeted LDHA, we found that a chronic stress–induced cancer stem-like phenotype could be reversed by vitamin C. These findings demonstrated the critical importance of psychological factors in promoting stem-like properties in breast cancer cells. Thus, the LDHA-lowering agent vitamin C can be a potential approach for combating stress-associated breast cancer.
Bai Cui, Yuanyuan Luo, Pengfei Tian, Fei Peng, Jinxin Lu, Yongliang Yang, Qitong Su, Bing Liu, Jiachuan Yu, Xi Luo, Liu Yin, Wei Cheng, Fan An, Bin He, Dapeng Liang, Sijin Wu, Peng Chu, Luyao Song, Xinyu Liu, Huandong Luo, Jie Xu, Yujia Pan, Yang Wang, Dangsheng Li, Peng Huang, Qingkai Yang, Lingqiang Zhang, Binhua P. Zhou, Suling Liu, Guowang Xu, Eric W.-F. Lam, Keith W. Kelley, Quentin Liu
Total views: 2280
The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase/stimulator of IFN genes (cGAS/STING) pathway detects cytosolic DNA to activate innate immune responses. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) selectively target cancer cells with DNA repair deficiencies such as those caused by BRCA1 mutations or ERCC1 defects. Using isogenic cell lines and patient-derived samples, we showed that ERCC1-defective non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells exhibit an enhanced type I IFN transcriptomic signature and that low ERCC1 expression correlates with increased lymphocytic infiltration. We demonstrated that clinical PARPi, including olaparib and rucaparib, have cell-autonomous immunomodulatory properties in ERCC1-defective NSCLC and BRCA1-defective triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Mechanistically, PARPi generated cytoplasmic chromatin fragments with characteristics of micronuclei; these were found to activate cGAS/STING, downstream type I IFN signaling, and CCL5 secretion. Importantly, these effects were suppressed in PARP1-null TNBC cells, suggesting that this phenotype resulted from an on-target effect of PARPi on PARP1. PARPi also potentiated IFN-γ–induced PD-L1 expression in NSCLC cell lines and in fresh patient tumor cells; this effect was enhanced in ERCC1-deficient contexts. Our data provide a preclinical rationale for using PARPi as immunomodulatory agents in appropriately molecularly selected populations.
Roman M. Chabanon, Gareth Muirhead, Dragomir B. Krastev, Julien Adam, Daphné Morel, Marlène Garrido, Andrew Lamb, Clémence Hénon, Nicolas Dorvault, Mathieu Rouanne, Rebecca Marlow, Ilirjana Bajrami, Marta Llorca Cardeñosa, Asha Konde, Benjamin Besse, Alan Ashworth, Stephen J. Pettitt, Syed Haider, Aurélien Marabelle, Andrew N.J. Tutt, Jean-Charles Soria, Christopher J. Lord, Sophie Postel-Vinay
Total views: 2031
Poststroke cognitive impairment is considered one of the main complications during the chronic phase of ischemic stroke. In the adult brain, the hippocampus regulates both encoding and retrieval of new information through adult neurogenesis. Nevertheless, the lack of predictive models and studies based on the forgetting processes hinders the understanding of memory alterations after stroke. Our aim was to explore whether poststroke neurogenesis participates in the development of long-term memory impairment. Here, we show a hippocampal neurogenesis burst that persisted 1 month after stroke and that correlated with an impaired contextual and spatial memory performance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis after stroke by physical activity or memantine treatment weakened existing memories. More importantly, stroke-induced newborn neurons promoted an aberrant hippocampal circuitry remodeling with differential features at ipsi- and contralesional levels. Strikingly, inhibition of stroke-induced hippocampal neurogenesis by temozolomide treatment or using a genetic approach (Nestin-CreERT2/NSE-DTA mice) impeded the forgetting of old memories. These results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis modulation could be considered as a potential approach for treatment of poststroke cognitive impairment.
María Isabel Cuartero, Juan de la Parra, Alberto Pérez-Ruiz, Isabel Bravo-Ferrer, Violeta Durán-Laforet, Alicia García-Culebras, Juan Manuel García-Segura, Jagroop Dhaliwal, Paul W. Frankland, Ignacio Lizasoain, María Ángeles Moro
Total views: 1762
Retinoic acid–related orphan receptor α (RORα) is considered a key regulator of polarization in liver macrophages that is closely related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) pathogenesis. However, hepatic microenvironments that support the function of RORα as a polarity regulator were largely unknown. Here, we identified maresin 1 (MaR1), a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) metabolite with a function of specialized proresolving mediator, as an endogenous ligand of RORα. MaR1 enhanced the expression and transcriptional activity of RORα and thereby increased the M2 polarity of liver macrophages. Administration of MaR1 protected mice from high-fat diet–induced NASH in a RORα-dependent manner. Surprisingly, RORα increased the level of MaR1 through transcriptional induction of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), a key enzyme in MaR1 biosynthesis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that modulation of 12-LOX activity enhanced the protective function of DHA against NASH. Together, these results suggest that the MaR1/RORα/12-LOX autoregulatory circuit could offer potential therapeutic strategies for curing NASH.
Yong-Hyun Han, Kyong-Oh Shin, Ju-Yeon Kim, Daulat B. Khadka, Hyeon-Ji Kim, Yong-Moon Lee, Won-Jea Cho, Ji-Young Cha, Bong-Jin Lee, Mi-Ock Lee
Total views: 1722
BACKGROUND. Recent genomic and bioinformatic technological advances have made it possible to dissect the immune response to personalized neoantigens encoded by tumor-specific mutations. However, timely and efficient identification of neoantigens is still one of the major obstacles to using personalized neoantigen-based cancer immunotherapy. METHODS. Two different pipelines of neoantigens identification were established in this study: (1) Clinical grade targeted sequencing was performed in patients with refractory solid tumor, and mutant peptides with high variant allele frequency and predicted high HLA-binding affinity were de novo synthesized. (2) An inventory-shared neoantigen peptide library of common solid tumors was constructed, and patients' hotspot mutations were matched to the neoantigen peptide library. The candidate neoepitopes were identified by recalling memory T-cell responses in vitro. Subsequently, neoantigen-loaded dendritic cell vaccines and neoantigen-reactive T cells were generated for personalized immunotherapy in six patients. RESULTS. Immunogenic neo-epitopes were recognized by autologous T cells in 3 of 4 patients who utilized the de novo synthesis mode and in 6 of 13 patients who performed shared neoantigen peptide library, respectively. A metastatic thymoma patient achieved a complete and durable response beyond 29 months after treatment. Immune-related partial response was observed in another patient with metastatic pancreatic cancer. The remaining four patients achieved the prolonged stabilization of disease with a median PFS of 8.6 months. CONCLUSIONS. The current study provided feasible pipelines for neoantigen identification. Implementing these strategies to individually tailor neoantigens could facilitate the neoantigen-based translational immunotherapy research. TRIAL REGSITRATION. ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-OIC-16010092, ChiCTR-OIC-17011275, ChiCTR-OIC-17011913; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03171220. FUNDING. This work was funded by grants from the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFC1308900), the National Major Projects for “Major New Drugs Innovation and Development” (Grant No.2018ZX09301048-003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81672367, 81572329, 81572601), and the Key Research and Development Program of Jiangsu Province (No. BE2017607).
Fangjun Chen, Zhengyun Zou, Juan Du, Shu Su, Jie Shao, Fanyan Meng, Ju Yang, Qiuping Xu, Naiqing Ding, Yang Yang, Qin Liu, Qin Wang, Zhichen Sun, Shujuan Zhou, Shiyao Du, Jia Wei, Baorui Liu
Total views: 1643
The cytoplasmic aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a hallmark of degenerating neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and subsets of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In order to reduce TDP-43 pathology, we generated single-chain (scFv) antibodies against the RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1) of TDP-43, which is involved in abnormal protein self-aggregation and interaction with p65 NF-κB. Virus-mediated delivery into the nervous system of a scFv antibody, named VH7Vk9, reduced microgliosis in a mouse model of acute neuroinflammation and mitigated cognitive impairment, motor defects, TDP-43 proteinopathy, and neuroinflammation in transgenic mice expressing ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations. These results suggest that antibodies targeting the RRM1 domain of TDP-43 might provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of ALS and FTD.
Silvia Pozzi, Sai Sampath Thammisetty, Philippe Codron, Reza Rahimian, Karine Valérie Plourde, Geneviève Soucy, Christine Bareil, Daniel Phaneuf, Jasna Kriz, Claude Gravel, Jean-Pierre Julien
Total views: 1605
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) degrades a protein molecule via 2 main steps: ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Extraproteasomal ubiquitin receptors are thought to couple the 2 steps, but this proposition has not been tested in vivo with vertebrates. More importantly, impaired UPS performance plays a major role in cardiac pathogenesis, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), but the molecular basis of UPS impairment remains poorly understood. Ubiquilin1 is a bona fide extraproteasomal ubiquitin receptor. Here, we report that mice with a cardiomyocyte-restricted knockout of Ubiquilin1 (Ubqln1-CKO mice) accumulated a surrogate UPS substrate (GFPdgn) and increased myocardial ubiquitinated proteins without altering proteasome activities, resulting in late-onset cardiomyopathy and a markedly shortened life span. When subject to regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, young Ubqln1-CKO mice showed substantially exacerbated cardiac malfunction and enlarged infarct size, and conversely, mice with transgenic Ubqln1 overexpression displayed attenuated IRI. Furthermore, Ubqln1 overexpression facilitated proteasomal degradation of oxidized proteins and the degradation of a UPS surrogate substrate in cultured cardiomyocytes without increasing autophagic flux. These findings demonstrate that Ubiquilin1 is essential to cardiac ubiquitination-proteasome coupling and that an inadequacy in the coupling represents a major pathogenic factor for myocardial IRI; therefore, strategies to strengthen coupling have the potential to reduce IRI.
Chengjun Hu, Yihao Tian, Hongxin Xu, Bo Pan, Erin M. Terpstra, Penglong Wu, Hongmin Wang, Faqian Li, Jinbao Liu, Xuejun Wang
Total views: 1605
Understanding the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) promises to be key for optimal cancer therapy, especially in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Integrating spatial resolution of immune cells with laser capture microdissection gene expression profiles, we defined distinct TIME stratification in TNBC, with implications for current therapies including immune checkpoint blockade. TNBCs with an immunoreactive microenvironment exhibited tumoral infiltration of granzyme B+CD8+ T cells (GzmB+CD8+ T cells), a type 1 IFN signature, and elevated expression of multiple immune inhibitory molecules including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), and resulted in good outcomes. An “immune-cold” microenvironment with an absence of tumoral CD8+ T cells was defined by elevated expression of the immunosuppressive marker B7-H4, signatures of fibrotic stroma, and poor outcomes. A distinct poor-outcome immunomodulatory microenvironment, hitherto poorly characterized, exhibited stromal restriction of CD8+ T cells, stromal expression of PD-L1, and enrichment for signatures of cholesterol biosynthesis. Metasignatures defining these TIME subtypes allowed us to stratify TNBCs, predict outcomes, and identify potential therapeutic targets for TNBC.
Tina Gruosso, Mathieu Gigoux, Venkata Satya Kumar Manem, Nicholas Bertos, Dongmei Zuo, Irina Perlitch, Sadiq Mehdi Ismail Saleh, Hong Zhao, Margarita Souleimanova, Radia Marie Johnson, Anne Monette, Valentina Muñoz Ramos, Michael Trevor Hallett, John Stagg, Réjean Lapointe, Atilla Omeroglu, Sarkis Meterissian, Laurence Buisseret, Gert Van den Eyden, Roberto Salgado, Marie-Christine Guiot, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Morag Park
Total views: 1594
Oncolytic virotherapy (OVT) is a promising approach in which WT or engineered viruses selectively replicate and destroy tumor cells while sparing normal ones. In the last two decades, different oncolytic viruses (OVs) have been modified and tested in a number of preclinical studies, some of which have led to clinical trials in cancer patients. These clinical trials have revealed several critical limitations with regard to viral delivery, spread, resistance, and antiviral immunity. Here, we focus on promising research strategies that have been developed to overcome the aforementioned obstacles. Such strategies include engineering OVs to target a broad spectrum of tumor cells while evading the immune system, developing unique delivery mechanisms, combining other immunotherapeutic agents with OVT, and using clinically translatable mouse tumor models to potentially translate OVT more readily into clinical settings.
Jordi Martinez-Quintanilla, Ivan Seah, Melissa Chua, Khalid Shah
Total views: 2017
In industrialized societies the incidence of allergic diseases like atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and asthma has risen alarmingly over the last few decades. This increase has been attributed, in part, to lifestyle changes that alter the composition and function of the microbes that colonize the skin and mucosal surfaces. Strategies that reverse these changes to establish and maintain a healthy microbiome show promise for the prevention and treatment of allergic disease. In this Review, we will discuss evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that gives insights into how the microbiota of skin, intestinal tract, and airways influence immune responses in the context of allergic sensitization.
Andrea M. Kemter, Cathryn R. Nagler
Total views: 1887
The rapid expansion in the number of encephalitis disorders associated with autoantibodies against neuronal proteins has led to an incremental increase in use of the term “autoimmune epilepsy,” yet has occurred with limited attention to the physiopathology of each disease and genuine propensity to develop epilepsy. Indeed, most autoimmune encephalitides present with seizures, but the probability of evolving to epilepsy is relatively small. The risk of epilepsy is higher for disorders in which the antigens are intracellular (often T cell–mediated) compared with disorders in which the antigens are on the cell surface (antibody-mediated). Most autoantibodies against neuronal surface antigens show robust effects on the target proteins, resulting in hyperexcitability and impairment of synaptic function and plasticity. Here, we trace the evolution of the concept of autoimmune epilepsy and examine common inflammatory pathways that might lead to epilepsy. Then, we focus on several antibody-mediated encephalitis disorders that associate with seizures and review the synaptic alterations caused by patients’ antibodies, with emphasis on those that have been modeled in animals (e.g., antibodies against NMDA, AMPA receptors, LGI1 protein) or in cultured neurons (e.g., antibodies against the GABAb receptor).
Christian Geis, Jesus Planagumà, Mar Carreño, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
Total views: 1737
The neuronal and immune systems exhibit bidirectional interactions that play a critical role in tissue homeostasis, infection, and inflammation. Neuron-derived neuropeptides and neurotransmitters regulate immune cell functions, whereas inflammatory mediators produced by immune cells enhance neuronal activation. In recent years, accumulating evidence suggests that peripheral neurons and immune cells are colocalized and affect each other in local tissues. A variety of cytokines, inflammatory mediators, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters appear to facilitate this crosstalk and positive-feedback loops between multiple types of immune cells and the central, peripheral, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems. In this Review, we discuss these recent findings regarding neuro-immune crosstalk that are uncovering molecular mechanisms that regulate inflammation. Finally, neuro-immune crosstalk has a key role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, and we present evidence indicating that neuro-immune interactions regulate asthma pathophysiology through both direct and indirect mechanisms.
Hiroki Kabata, David Artis
Total views: 1475
Allergic diseases have in common a dysfunctional epithelial barrier, which allows the penetration of allergens and microbes, leading to the release of type 2 cytokines that drive allergic inflammation. The accessibility of skin, compared with lung or gastrointestinal tissue, has facilitated detailed investigations into mechanisms underlying epithelial barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis (AD). This Review describes the formation of the skin barrier and analyzes the link between altered skin barrier formation and the pathogenesis of AD. The keratinocyte differentiation process is under tight regulation. During epidermal differentiation, keratinocytes sequentially switch gene expression programs, resulting in terminal differentiation and the formation of a mature stratum corneum, which is essential for the skin to prevent allergen or microbial invasion. Abnormalities in keratinocyte differentiation in AD skin result in hyperproliferation of the basal layer of epidermis, inhibition of markers of terminal differentiation, and barrier lipid abnormalities, compromising skin barrier and antimicrobial function. There is also compelling evidence for epithelial dysregulation in asthma, food allergy, eosinophilic esophagitis, and allergic rhinosinusitis. This Review examines current epithelial barrier repair strategies as an approach for allergy prevention or intervention.
Elena Goleva, Evgeny Berdyshev, Donald Y.M. Leung
Total views: 1113
A rapidly developing paradigm for modern health care is a proactive and individualized response to patients’ symptoms, combining precision diagnosis and personalized treatment. Precision medicine is becoming an overarching medical discipline that will require a better understanding of biomarkers, phenotypes, endotypes, genotypes, regiotypes, and theratypes of diseases. The 100-year-old personalized allergen-specific management of allergic diseases has particularly contributed to early awareness in precision medicine. Polyomics, big data, and systems biology have demonstrated a profound complexity and dynamic variability in allergic disease between individuals, as well as between regions. Escalating health care costs together with questionable efficacy of the current management of allergic diseases facilitated the emergence of the endotype-driven approach. We describe here a precision medicine approach that stratifies patients based on disease mechanisms to optimize management of allergic diseases.
Ioana Agache, Cezmi A. Akdis
Total views: 1104
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are chemically synthesized nucleic acid analogs designed to bind to RNA by Watson-Crick base pairing. Following binding to the targeted RNA, the ASO perturbs RNA function by promoting selective degradation of the targeted RNA, altering RNA intermediary metabolism, or disrupting function of the RNA. Most antisense drugs are chemically modified to enhance their pharmacological properties and for passive targeting of the tissues of therapeutic interest. Recent advances in selective tissue targeting have resulted in a newer generation of ASO drugs that are more potent and better tolerated than previous generations, spawning renewed interest in identifying selective ligands that enhance targeted delivery of ASOs to tissues.
Punit P. Seth, Michael Tanowitz, C. Frank Bennett
Total views: 991
Gastrointestinal (GI) allergic disease is an umbrella term used to describe a variety of adverse, food antigen–driven, immune-mediated diseases. Although these diseases vary mechanistically, common elements include a breakdown of immunologic tolerance, a biased type 2 immune response, and an impaired mucosal barrier. These pathways are influenced by diverse factors such as diet, infections, exposure to antibiotics and chemicals, GI microbiome composition, and genetic and epigenetic elements. Early childhood has emerged as a critical period when these factors have a dramatic impact on shaping the immune system and therefore triggering or protecting against the onset of GI allergic diseases. In this Review, we will discuss the latest findings on the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern GI allergic diseases and how these findings have set the stage for emerging preventative and treatment strategies.
Nurit P. Azouz, Marc E. Rothenberg
Total views: 960
The rising prevalence of allergies represents an increasing socioeconomic burden. A detailed understanding of the immunological mechanisms that underlie the development of allergic disease, as well as the processes that drive immune tolerance to allergens, will be instrumental in designing therapeutic strategies to treat and prevent allergic disease. Improved characterization of individual patients through the use of specific biomarkers and improved definitions of disease endotypes are paving the way for the use of targeted therapeutic approaches for personalized treatment. Allergen-specific immunotherapy and biologic therapies that target key molecules driving the Th2 response are already used in the clinic, and a wave of novel drug candidates are under development. In-depth analysis of the cells and tissues of patients treated with such targeted interventions provides a wealth of information on the mechanisms that drive allergies and tolerance to allergens. Here, we aim to deliver an overview of the current state of specific inhibitors used in the treatment of allergy, with a particular focus on asthma and atopic dermatitis, and provide insights into the roles of these molecules in immunological mechanisms of allergic disease.
Willem van de Veen, Mübeccel Akdis
Total views: 807
Environmental exposures interplay with human host factors to promote the development and progression of allergic diseases. The worldwide prevalence of allergic disease is rising as a result of complex gene-environment interactions that shape the immune system and host response. Research shows an association between the rise of allergic diseases and increasingly modern Westernized lifestyles, which are characterized by increased urbanization, time spent indoors, and antibiotic usage. These environmental changes result in increased exposure to air and traffic pollution, fungi, infectious agents, tobacco smoke, and other early-life and lifelong risk factors for the development and exacerbation of asthma and allergic diseases. It is increasingly recognized that the timing, load, and route of allergen exposure affect allergic disease phenotypes and development. Still, our ability to prevent allergic diseases is hindered by gaps in understanding of the underlying mechanisms and interaction of environmental, viral, and allergen exposures with immune pathways that impact disease development. This Review highlights epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence linking environmental exposures to the development and exacerbation of allergic airway responses.
Liza Bronner Murrison, Eric B. Brandt, Jocelyn Biagini Myers, Gurjit K. Khurana Hershey
Total views: 547